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Heat Transfer

Flooded condenser vents for pressure control

Contributing Author: Sharma, A.

Of the condensers in process industries such as refineries and petrochemical facilities, many are flooded-type condensers.

Heat exchangers: Understanding the technology and its market

Stratview Research: Patnaik, C.

The laws of thermodynamics include: energy can neither be created nor destroyed, it can only be converted from one form to another; and heat always moves downhill, from hotter objects to the colder objects, unless the direction of heat flow is reversed using external energy.

Practical application of expansion joints for heat exchangers

Contributing Consultant: Acharya, B. N.  |  Pal, N.
Air Products and Chemicals, Inc.: Daru, K.
PVA Systems: Panchal, A.

Expansion joints are used throughout industry for various purposes.

Key considerations for the optimum design of a hot oil system

Bechtel India Pvt Ltd.: Singh, R. B.  |  Maheshwari, G.  |  Goel, A.

In the hydrocarbon processing industry, where direct heating is not possible, a heat transfer medium is used. Steam has traditionally been the preferred heating medium.

Fouling monitoring and prediction of heat exchangers via simulations powered by AI-driven models

Hydrocracker units are the most valuable conversion facilities in refineries. The outcome is the conversion of a variety of feedstocks to a range of products—the units that produce those products can be found at various points throughout a refinery.

Innovations

Hydrocarbon Processing Staff: Rhodes, Mike

Endress+Hauser’s newly developed iTEMP TMT31 temperature transmitter (FIG. 1) for analog 4-20mA signals is characterized by its long-term stability, high accuracy and ease of use for reliable temperature measurement.

Sensitivity analysis of a shell-and-tube heat exchanger

Facility for Rare Isotope Beams: Laturkar, K.
Validation Associates LLC: Laturkar, K.

Sensitivity analyses evaluate the effects of changes in certain variables on project simulations or investment economics.1

Cut emissions and fuel while increasing capacity in fired heaters

IGS: Poth, J.

According to a recent digital refining article,1 fired heaters are responsible for an estimated 400 MMtpy–500 MMtpy of CO<sub>2</sub>, with at least 73% of average refinery CO<sub>2</sub> emissions coming from combustion.

Mechanical design challenges in high-temperature electric heaters

Contributing Editor: Pramanik, R.
China Petroleum Engineering Co. Ltd.: Srinath, N. R.
Fluor Canada Ltd.: Stefanovic, R.

Electric heaters are used in the process industries as an alternative to fired heaters or process heaters—where the heating medium is either steam or any heating fluid—for some specific applications where the process duties are low but fluids are heated to high temperature.

Air-cooled heat exchanger under natural convection

Contributing Consultant: Pramanik, R.

Determining whether or not to operate an air-cooled heat exchanger (ACHE) under natural convection is a challenge due to the limited information available for simulations of an ACHE under operation without fans.